America's Cup Racing Off Sandy Hook
Year        Place                          Defender          Challenger
1870         New York (USA)       Magic                   Cambria  
1871         New York (USA)  
Columbia+Sappho   Livonia  
1876         New York (USA)       
Madeleine         Countess of Dufferin
1881         New York (USA)       Mischief             Atalanta
1885         New York (USA)       Puritan              Genesta  
1886         New York (USA)       
Mayflower         Galatea
1887         New York (USA)       Volunteer           Thistle
1893         New York (USA)       Vigilant             Valkyrie II  
1895         New York (USA)       
Defender           Valkyrie III
1899         New York (USA)       Columbia         Shamrock
1901         New York (USA)       Columbia         Shamrock II  
1903         New York (USA)       Reliance           Shamrock III
1920         New York (USA)       Resolute           Shamrock IV
From 1870 until 1920, the America's Cup races was held in Lower New York Bay, off Sandy Hook. In 1899, Guglielmo Marconi placed an antenna and
receiving station at the
Twin Lights Navesink Light Station to demonstrate his Wireless Telegraph. The New York Herald newspaper had hired him to report
on the America’s Cup yacht races which were being held off the tip of Sandy Hook, the first use of wireless telegraphy on a commercial basis. The defending
yacht for the New York Yacht Club was
Columbia, designed by the famous Nathanael Greene Herreshoff. The challenger yacht was Sir Thomas Lipton's first
Shamrock. The America's Cup races were sailed from October 16 to 20, 1899, in the best three out of five. There were three different courses: the first one, 15
miles to leeward and return from Sandy Hook Lightship; the second one, an equilateral triangle of 30 miles; the third one, 20 miles to leeward and return from
Sandy Hook Lightship. In the first race on  October 16,
Columbia beat Shamrock by 10 minutes and 08 seconds on corrected time. In the second race on
October 17,
Columbia won after Shamrock withdrew after breaking its topmast. In the third race on October 20, Columbia beat Shamrock by 06 minutes and 34
seconds on corrected time.
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff's Columbia
Shamrock III off Sand Hook Lightship 1903
Columbia went on to defend the cup again two years later against the much newer Shamrock II in a best of five race series from September 28 to October 4,
1901. Again three deferent courses were run, and once again the results were Columbia over Shamrock II three wins to nil. The first race on September 28,
30 mile windward-leeward course from Sandy Hook Lightship, was won by Columbia by one minute and 20 seconds on corrected time. The second race on
October 3, a 30 mile triangular course, Columbia beat Shamrock II by three minutes and 45 seconds on corrected time. The third race on October 4, a 40
mile windward-leeward course, Columbia beat Shamrock II by 41 seconds on corrected time. Columbia made America's Cup history as the first boat to win
the trophy two times in succession.
1899 sailplan of Herreshoff's Columbia