My On-Line Publications
Titanic's Master of Time -- A detailed look into the workings of the Magneta clock system that was installed on Titanic,
and the impact of time adjustments that were carried out as the vessel traveled across the Atlantic.

Collision Point
A reappraisal of the location of where Titanic collided with an iceberg on the night of April 14, 1912, including a collision
sequence animation, an estimate for
Titanic's final stopping point following the collision, and a comparison to the 1992
work of the MAIB.

Iceberg Right Ahead
A stochastic analysis of the density and distribution of icebergs in the region where the Titanic went down, including a
realistic view of the sighting distances involved on a calm, clear, and moonless night.

Keeping Track of a Maiden Voyage
A look at the noontime positions of the SS Titanic during the first three days of her maiden transatlantic voyage, including
the GMT of local apparent noon, the amount of clock setback, and the average speed made good for each day of her short
voyage. (Originally published in the Irish Titanic Historical Society's
White Star Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, August 2006.)

Olympic and Titanic: Maiden Voyage Mysteries
Co-authored with Mark Chirnside, we explore some of the navigational aspects of the maiden voyage of Olympic and her
ill-fated sister, including the uncovering of a 100-minute error in calculating
Olympic's average crossing time and speed
that was never before realized which understated her overall performance all these years. (Originally published in the
Titanic International Society's journal
Voyage, No. 59, Spring 2007.)

Somewhere About 12 Square Feet
A look at how that famous 12 square feet of aggregate hull opening, which described the extent of damage done to the S.S.
, came about, and how a simple milk container can be used to visualize and quantify the flooding that took place on
the ship over time.

Speed and Revolutions
The development of a slip table for the Titanic, including the derivation of curves of speed versus propeller revolutions with
and without the central turbine connected up.  

Titanic's Hidden Deck
A look into cellular double bottom of Olympic and Titanic which were made up of 44 separate watertight compartments
below the level of the tank top.

Titanic's Prime Mover
A in-depth examination of the propulsion and power plant installed on the Olympic and Titanic, including how it all
worked (including animations of the workings of various machinery) and how well it compared to the all-turbine plants of
Lusitania and Mauretania.

Titanic: Changing the Reality
A hard hitting response to Dave Brown's paper, "Titanic: Changing Course," which was originally published on the GLTS
website, that deals with issues of navigation and time. Co-authored with Mark Chirnside.

Speed and More Speed
In this article, co-authored with Mark Chinside, we examine:
- How fast was
Titanic going when she collided with the iceberg, and when did she achieve that speed?
- Did the ship have enough coal on board to run at full speed across the Atlantic?
- Was
Titanic out to break any crossing record and arrive in NY a day ahead of schedule?
- How much influence did J. Bruce Ismay have on Capt. Smith regarding the matter in which the vessel was driven?
- Was there any justifiable reason why Capt. Smith would drive his ship at full speed at night in a region of ice?
(Originally published in the Titanic Historical Society's journal
The Titanic Commutator, Vol. 32, No. 182 and 183.)

Why A Low Angle Break?
This short article explains why Titanic was much more likely to break in half at a relatively small angle of trim (between 10°
and 15°) rather than at a high angle as once previously thought. Use is made of a simple analogy to a floating beam
pivoted at one end, and a curve of bending moment Vs. trim angle is derived.

A Matter of Stability and Trim
This article derives the height above the keel of Titanic's Center of Buoyancy (KB), Center of Gravity (KG), and
Metacenter (KM) for the night of April 14, 1912, before the accident took place. Also derived are the ship's Metacentric
Radius (BM), Initial Righting Arm (GZ) and Righting Moment (WxGZ) as a function of heeling angle in degrees. In
addition, the location of its Longitudinal Center of Floatation (LCF) is also derived. These parameters, along with the
ship's displacement (W), draft (T), and Metacentric height (GM) on that night are also discussed. Knowledge of these
parameters are a must for anyone wanting to build an accurate floating model that has the same stability and trim
characteristics as the real ship, or for analyzing other aspects dealing with its  stability or trim.

She Turned Two Points in 37 Seconds
This in-depth article deals with the turning characteristics of Olympic and Titanic. Based on data presented by H&W's
naval architect Edward Wilding, we were able to recreate the turning circle of these ships with the helm put hard over with
the going full speed ahead. We also were able to determine the performance during several zig-zag maneuvers where the
helm is ordered shifted to the opposite side at a specified time following the initial helm order. The article also looks at the
classic story of
Titanic's encounter with the iceberg and the various claims made by eyewitnesses. It also looked into the
dynamics of the initial impact with the iceberg. Several appendices are also included with show the details behind the
various curves and data that are presented as well as other related results.

Rockets, Lifeboats, and Time Changes
This article, now available on line, was first published in TIS's Voyage 70, Winter 2009 issue, and in BTS's Atlantic Daily
, December 2009 issue. It deals with rocket sightings on the Californian and how they correlate with rocket firings,
lifeboat launchings, and planned time changes that took place on the

This article (in PDF format) is an extensive in-depth look at the issue of time carried aboard Titanic on the night of the
disaster.  It originally started as a hard hitting response to an article written by Senan Molony and posted on the
Encyclopedia Titanica website, called: "When Did Titanic Try For Help?" Molony's paper was written to discredit the
claim presented in my article "Rockets, Lifeboats, and Time Changes" (see above link) that the difference between NY time
Titanic time was 2 hours and 2 minutes, claiming that it was 1 hour and 33 minutes.  In this article, revised and greatly
expanded on April 07, 2019, I show how the erroneous 1 hour 33 minute difference presented at the American Inquiry (and
advocated by Molony) most likely came about, how it is directly linked to the erroneous SOS position that was worked up
Titanic's 4/O Joseph Boxhall, and is inconsistent with the way time was kept at sea, and most importantly, would have
some astonishing and unbelievable implications if it were true.  The article also deals with claims by some recent
revisionists that a partial clock alteration occurred on
Titanic sometime before the collision took place, and shows why
such claims are not true.

12:35 A.M.  Apparent Time Carpathia
At the US Senate Investigation into the Titanic disaster, Capt. Rostron said that he received the distress message about
Titanic from Harold Cottam at 12:35 a.m., Monday, April 15, 1912. He also explained that 12:35 was Apparent time, and
time in New York was 10:45 p.m. Sunday night. Was he right? Was
Carpathia's clocks 1 hour 50 minutes ahead of clocks in
New York? Or, was this another piece of erroneous information that was blindly accepted as true all these years? Now
included as Appendix M in '
Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

Navigational Inconsistencies of the SS Californian
This is now part of Chapter I, "A Californian Voyage," in 'Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic

Finding the Apparent Floatation Pivot Point (AFPP)
To someone looking from far away as Titanic slowly trimmed down by the head over a period of some 2 ½ hours following
the collision with an iceberg, the ship would have appeared to be slowly pivoting about an axis on her original waterline
located somewhere about 1/3 the vessel's length from the stern.  This short technical paper derives the location of this
Apparent Floatation Pivot Point (AFPP) when the vessel's draft aft and draft forward are know.  It also shows why the
location of the AFPP remains about the same location as more water entered the ship in a relatively confined space
forward, and also shows why the angle of trim would tend to increase in direct proportion to the volume of floodwater that
came into the vessel in the early stages of flooding.

The Enigmatic Excursion of the SS Birma
This is now part of Chapter XV in 'Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

The Drift of Wreckage
Using the same models used in air/sea rescue operations, we show that the wreckage seen by Californian on the morning of
15 April 1912 some ten miles south of the
Titanic wreck site resulted primarily from the action of a south setting Labrador
current, not by the action of the wind that sprang up at dawn. It also shows why the floating wreckage seen would be to the
south of where many of the bodies would have been, an  area that was avoided by both
Californian and Carpathia. Now
part of Chapter XI in '
Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

What Color Were They?
In a 2012 National Geographic special on Titanic, definitive statements made that the distress signals sent up from Titanic
threw stars that were colored, and that the color of the stars or balls could be seen through viewing ports cut in the nose
cones of signals found in box at wreck site. Yet, eyewitnesses who paid particular attention to the distress signals being sent
up from
Titanic, both near and far, and insisted that those signals threw stars that were principally white in color, have
been dismissed based on faulty interpretation of what is seen on the tips of the signals found in this box.  This 17 page
article challenges those definitive conclusions that were stated before a nationally televised audience, presents close-up
color photos of the box of signals discovered in the 2004 dive, and presents detailed descriptions of the socket signals
themselves and how they were fired.
 (This article was revised on February 22, 2021.)

Proceeding New York Unless Otherwise Ordered
This article was first published in the Atlantic Daily Bulletin, journal of the British Titanic Society, in September 2012. The
article takes an in-depth look at why
Carpathia's Capt. Rostron delayed communicating his decision to take Titanic
survivors to New York, and reproduces
Carpathia's most likely route of departure from the scene of the wreckage.  It also
explores the question of timing,
Carpathia's course made good to reach the lifeboats, and the witnessing of her arrival on
the scene in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912.
 Now part of Chapter X in 'Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and
Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

The Almerian and the Mount Temple - A Tale of Two Ships
This article was first published in the December 2012 issue of the Atlantic Daily Bulletin, journal of the British Titanic
Society. It deals with the movements of two vessels,
Mount Temple and Almerian, on the morning of April 15, 1912,
following the
Titanic disaster. Mount Temple was one ship that has been implicated by supporters of Capt. Stanley Lord of
the SS
Californian as the possible mystery ship seen from Titanic that failed to respond to Titanic's distress signals.
Almerian was later identified by Capt. Lord as the small tramp steamer that was seen going northward near where Mount
was stopped while he was heading southward on the western side of the ice field before cutting through the field to
reach the rescue ship
Carpathia picking up Titanic's lifeboats on the other side. This article deals with the various claims
and allegations that have been made based on new, hard evidence that has been uncovered dealing with the movements of
Almerian.  Now part of Chapter XIV, "A Tale of Two Ships - Part 2: Almerian," in 'Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and
Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

I Thought it Was a Narrow Shave
In this new article we look closely at the timing of the order to turn Titanic away from the object sighted ahead after the
lookouts sounded their 3-bell warning.  We show that to completely avoid striking the iceberg without further action, the
hard-astarboard helm order would have had to come about the same time as those 3 bells, offering the 1st officer on the
bridge almost no time to assess the unfolding situation.  With only seconds to assess a difficult situation, it became clear to
the 1st officer that the ship was just too close to avoid striking the object that loomed ahead. He had little choice but to
take action that would minimize the potential damage to the ship, an action that was in keeping with guidelines that appear
in modern day textbooks.

Mistakes in the Night
This article dealt with the issue of why Titanic's distress positions transmitted by wireless in the early morning hours of
April 15, 1912 were so far west of the wreck site.  It explored how simple mistakes made in haste can produce erroneous
results. The first, a simple mental error on the part of Captian Smith when comparing the time difference between two
events, and then an error by 4th Officer Boxhall when reading from the wrong column in a traverse table. Now part of
Chapter II, "A Maiden Voyage," in '
Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

We Could Not See One Body
This revised and expanded article dealt with the issue as to why Carpathia and Californian did not report seeing many
floating bodies amongst the wreckage on the Morning of 15 April 1912.  It also looked at how the general circulation of
current in that part of the Atlantic may have affected to paths of vessels on their way to the rescue, as well as the locations
of bodies and wreckage sighted several days after the disaster.
 Now part of Chapter XI, "Drifting Ice and Meandering
Currents," in '
Strangers On The Horizon: Titanic and Californian - A Forensic Approach'.

Lights to Port - Lights to Starboard
In 1956 two passenger liners, the SS Andrea Doria and MS Stockholm, collided in one of the most famous shipping
disasters of the mid 20th century.  It was later called the first major radar assisted collision in the history of shipping. This
article presents a detailed report into the circumstances that led up to the collision and subsequent loss of
Andrea Doria
that resulted.  A shortened version of this article was originally published in two parts in the journal of the Titanic
International Society in
Voyage 75 and Voyage 76, in the spring and summer of 2011.

Brace for Collision!
What if Titanic had collided head-on with the iceberg?  Would she be able to stay afloat, or would she sink faster than she
did on the night of April 14th 1912?  This article takes an inside view into these questions by quantifying the force and
energy behind a head-on collision with an immovable object, derives the stopping deceleration in terms of g forces that
would be experienced by those on board,  derives how long in time such a collision event will last, and looks at the damage
that can be expected to the vessel.  It also considers the damage expected if the ship was going at a slower speed than it was
going that night, and compares the derived results for
Titanic to that of other vessels involved in head-on collisions.  In
addition, a realistic scenario of how such an accident could have come about is also presented.
The following is a list of articles that I authored or co-authored and published on-line. You can view many of
these by clicking on the title which should take you directly to the article.
Copyright © 2007-2020 Samuel Halpern. All rights reserved.